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重要更新:医疗保健设施
为了应对COVID-19免疫接种,CDC更新了有效运行医疗保健系统的选择方法。了解更多
更新
根据B.1.617.2 (Delta) 变种病毒的新证据,CDC更新了全剂量接种疫苗人群指导方针。CDC建议所有教师、工作人员、学生和K-12学校的访客,无论疫苗接种状况如何,均应在室内普遍佩戴口罩。孩子们应在秋季恢复全日制实地校园学习,并采取分层预防策略。
更新
白宫宣布,从2021年11月8日起,进入美国的国际旅行者必须接种疫苗。要进入美国,接种的疫苗必须是FDA批准或授权以及列入WHO紧急使用清单的疫苗。点击此处获取更多信息。
更新
自2021年11月8日开始,进入美国的旅行要求将会改变。点击此处获取更多信息。

动物与COVID-19

动物与COVID-19
您需要了解的信息
  • 动物将COVID-19致病病毒SARS-CoV-2传播给人的风险较低。
  • 病毒可以在密切接触期间从人传播给动物。
  • 需要更多的研究和监测来了解SARS-CoV-2如何在人与动物之间传播。
  • 疑似或确诊COVID-19的人应避免与动物接触,包括宠物、牲畜和野生动物。

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses. Some coronaviruses cause cold-like illnesses in people, while others cause illness in certain types of animals, such as cattle, camels, and bats. Some coronaviruses, such as canine and feline coronaviruses, infect only animals and do not infect people. Some coronaviruses that infect animals can be spread to people and then spread between people, but this is rare. This is what happened with SARS-CoV-2, which likely originated in bats.

人类将SARS-CoV-2传播给动物的风险

People can spread SARS-CoV-2 to animals, especially during close contact.

Animals infected with SARS-CoV-2 have been documented around the world. Most of these animals became infected after contact with people with COVID-19, including owners, caretakers, or others who were in close contact. We don’t yet know all of the animals that can get infected. Animals reported infected worldwide include

  • 陪伴动物,包括宠物猫、狗、仓鼠和雪貂。
  • 动物园和保护区中的动物,包括几种大型猫科动物(例如狮子、老虎、雪豹)、水獭、非人类灵长类动物、熊狸、浣熊、渔猫、鬣狗、河马和海牛。
  • 水貂养殖场的水貂。
  • 野生动物,包括白尾鹿、骡鹿、黑尾狨猴、巨型食蚁兽和水貂养殖场附近的野生水貂。

For information on how to protect pets and animals, visit

动物将SARS-CoV-2传播给人类的风险

The risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered low.

There is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, to people. There have been a few reports of infected mammalian animals spreading the virus to people during close contact, but this is rare. These cases include farmed mink in Europe and the United States, white-tailed deer in Canada, pet hamsters in Hong Kong, and a cat in Thailand. In most of these cases, the animals were known to be first infected by a person who had COVID-19.

It’s important to remember that people are much more likely to get COVID-19 from other people than from animals. There is no need to euthanize or otherwise harm animals infected with SARS-CoV-2.

There is a possibility that the virus could infect animals, mutate, and a new strain could spread back to people and then among people (called spillback). More studies and surveillance are needed to track variants and mutations and to understand how SARS-CoV-2 spreads between people and animals.

水貂和SARS-CoV-2

SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in farmed mink in multiple countries. Currently, there is no evidence that mink are playing a significant role in the spread of COVID-19 to people.

In the United States, respiratory disease and increases in mink deaths have been seen on most affected mink farms. However, some infected mink might also appear healthy. Infected workers likely introduced SARS-CoV-2 to mink on the farms, and the virus then began to spread among the mink. Once the virus is introduced on a farm, spread can occur between mink, as well as from mink to other animals on the farm (dogs, cats). One wild mink and a small number of escaped farm mink trapped near affected farms in Utah and Oregon were found to be infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Although there is no evidence that mink are playing a significant role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 to people, there is a possibility of mink spreading SARS-CoV-2 to people and other animals on mink farms. Mink-to-human spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Poland, and data suggest it might have occurred in the United States.

  • 调查发现,密歇根州一家养殖场的水貂和少数人感染了SARS-CoV-2,病毒中含有与水貂相关的特殊突变(病毒遗传物质的变化)。这表明可能已经发生了水貂向人类传播的情况。
  • 在密歇根养殖场的水貂中发现这些突变并不意外,因为此前在荷兰和丹麦养殖场的水貂中以及世界各地与水貂养殖场相关的人群中都曾发现过这些突变。
  • 要证实水貂是否会向人类传播SARS-CoV-2,公共卫生官员还需要了解更多关于水貂、水貂养殖场人员和水貂养殖场周边社区的病毒流行病学和遗传学信息。
  • 这些结果强调了对水貂等易感动物群体以及人类中进行SARS-CoV-2遗传物质常规研究的重要性。

Guidance is available to protect worker and animal health, developed collaboratively by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), CDC, and state animal and public health partners using a One Health approach:

Prevent Introduction of SARS-CoV-2 on Mink FarmsInterim SARS-CoV-2 Guidance and Recommendations for Farmed Mink and Other Mustelids

Response and Containment GuidelinesInterim Guidance for Animal Health and Public Health Officials Managing Farmed Mink and other Farmed Mustelids with SARS-CoV-2

USDA maintains a listexternal icon of all animals and mink farms in the United States with SARS-CoV-2 infections confirmed by their National Veterinary Services Laboratories.

有关动物与COVID-19的研究

需要更多的研究和监测来了解不同的动物是否以及如何受到COVID-19的影响。

Many studies have been done to learn more about how this virus can affect different animals, including if they are susceptible to infection and if they can spread infection to other animals. Studies on animals do not show whether animals can spread infection to people.

Based on these studies, we know that invertebrates, birds, reptiles, and amphibians are not susceptible to infection with SARS-CoV-2.

CDC在做什么

自全球流行病开始以来,CDC一直在努力提高人们对SARS-CoV-2如何影响动物以及这种病毒如何在人与动物之间传播的认识。CDC还致力于改善联邦、各州和其他“共享健康”合作伙伴的协调合作。

  • CDC领导“共享健康”联邦跨机构COVID-19协调(OH-FICC)小组的工作,该小组汇集了来自超过20个联邦机构的公共卫生、动物健康和环境卫生代表,就COVID-19“共享健康”方面进行协调合作和信息交流。例如,该小组研究并制定了关于人与宠物、野生动物、动物园动物和家畜之间的联系;动物诊断和检测;以及COVID-19相关环境卫生问题的指导方针。
  • CDC leads the regular State-Federal One Health Update Call to bring local, state, tribal, and territorial partners together with OH-FICC members.
  • CDC、USDA、各州公共卫生和动物健康官员以及学术合作伙伴正在一些州展开合作,针对与COVID-19感染有过接触的宠物(包括猫、狗和其他小型哺乳动物)进行SARS-CoV-2主动监测(主动检测)。
  • CDC在多个州部署了“共享健康”小组,用于支持各州和地方卫生部门和农业部门、联邦合作伙伴以及其他组织针对人类、水貂和其他动物(家畜和野生动物)中的SARS-CoV-2进行农场调查。这些小组从农场的动物、农场工作人员以及附近社区人员收集样本。