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在惩教和拘留设施中进行SARS-CoV-2检测的临时考虑事项

在惩教和拘留设施中进行SARS-CoV-2检测的临时考虑事项
近期变更总结

于2020年8月10日加以修订,变更内容如下:

  • Accumulating evidence supports ending isolation and precautions for persons with COVID-19 using a symptom-based strategy. This update incorporates recent evidence to inform the duration of isolation and precautions recommended to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to others, while limiting unnecessary prolonged isolation and unnecessary use of laboratory testing resources.

These interim considerations are based on what is currently known about SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 as of the date of posting, August 10, 2020.

CDC将根据需要和其他信息更新这些考虑事项。请定期查阅CDC网站以了解最新的临时指导方针。

注:除其他实体或联邦或州机构引用(或规定)的情况外,本文件旨在提供有关适当使用检测的考虑,不规定此类检测的支付决定或保险范围的确定。CDC是一家非监管机构,本文件中的信息旨在帮助惩教和拘留设施做出决策,而非制定监管要求。

Correctional and detention facilities can determine, in collaboration with state and local health officials, whether and how to implement the following proposed testing strategies. Implementation should be guided by what is feasible, practical, and acceptable, and should be tailored to the needs of each facility. These considerations are meant to supplement—not replace—any state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which facilities must comply.

CDC offers considerations for correctional and detention facilities to plan, prepare, and respond to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Interim Guidance on Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Correctional and Detention Facilities. Testing to diagnose COVID-19 is one component of a comprehensive strategy and should be used in conjunction with a number of other prevention and mitigation activities described in the interim guidance.

Testing symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals and initiating medical isolation for suspected and confirmed cases and quarantine for close contacts can help prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in correctional and detention facilities. This page provides considerations for implementing SARS-CoV-2 testing among incarcerated and detained persons and facility staff. Any time a positive test result is identified, ensure that the individual is rapidly notified, connected to appropriate medical care, and medical isolation is initiated. See CDC’s Interim Guidance on Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Correctional and Detention Facilities for further details related to responding to cases. Correctional and detention facilities should follow guidance from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commissionexternal icon when instituting and offering testing to staff, and when staff are preparing to return to work. Note that symptom screening, testing, and contact tracing strategies should be carried out in a way that protects privacy and confidentiality to the extent possible and that is consistent with applicable laws and regulations.

COVID-19检测类型

Viral tests are recommended to diagnose current infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Viral tests evaluate whether the virus is present in a respiratory sample. Results from viral tests help identify and isolate people who are infected in order to minimize SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

Antibody tests are used to detect a past infection with SARS-CoV-2. CDC does not currently recommend using antibody testing as the sole basis for diagnosing current infection. Depending on when someone was infected and the timing of the test, the test may not find antibodies in someone with a current SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, it is currently not proven whether a positive antibody test indicates protection against future SARS-CoV-2 infection; therefore, antibody tests should not be used at this time to determine if an individual is immune.

CDC recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 testing are based on what is currently known about the virus. SARS-CoV-2 is new, and what is known about it changes rapidly.  Information on testing for SARS-CoV-2 will be updated as more information becomes available.

何时需要检测

This page describes three scenarios when incarcerated or detained persons (IDP) or staff in correctional and detention facilities may need to have an initial SARS-CoV-2 viral test:

  • 检测体征或症状符合COVID-19的个人
  • 检测最近已知或怀疑接触过SARS-CoV-2的无症状个人,以控制传播
  • 检测未知或可能接触过SARS-CoV-2的无症状个人,以便进行早期识别

This page also outlines considerations for planning broad-based testing in correctional and detention facilities (i.e., testing both symptomatic and asymptomatic persons), including:

  • 在惩教和拘留设施中实施SARS-CoV-2广泛检测的实际考虑
  • 帮助设施制定有关如何以及何时进行广泛SARS-CoV-2检测决定的考虑清单

These considerations are intended to provide evidence-based strategies for SARS-CoV-2 testing among IDP and staff who work in correctional and detention facilities. Depending on the context, specific testing considerations may be applied to IDP, staff, or both.

检测体征或症状符合COVID-19的个人

Consistent with CDC’s recommendations, individuals (including staff and IDP) with COVID-19 signs or symptoms should be referred to a healthcare provider for evaluation for testing.

  • One strategy to identify individuals with COVID-19 signs or symptoms and to help lower the risk of transmission is to conduct temperature screening and/or symptom checks. To identify individuals with symptoms, facilities should integrate temperature screening and symptom checks into their standard practices (i.e., among IDP at intake, prior to discharge/release or transfer; daily staff screening; screening of volunteers and vendors upon entry). Screenings should be conducted safely and respectfully and in accordance with any applicable privacy laws and regulations. See guidance on how to conduct temperature screening and symptom checks in the Interim Guidance on Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Correctional and Detention Facilities.
  • Note that symptom screenings cannot identify individuals with COVID-19 who may be asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic, and therefore will not prevent all individuals with COVID-19 from entering the facility.

检测最近已知或怀疑接触过SARS-CoV-2的无症状个人,以控制传播

Testing is recommended for all close contacts1 of persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection:

Broader testing strategy beyond close contacts

Congregate living or working conditions, such as in correctional and detention facilities, have potential for rapid and widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Performing contact tracing in correctional and detention settings may be resource-intensive and challenging (e.g., the number of close contacts of infected IDP in a housing unit with a dormitory-style sleeping area and shared restrooms and shower facilities may be large; outside public health staff conducting contact tracing may have limited access to correctional and detention facilities, and it may be necessary to conduct interviews with cases and close contacts over the phone). If contact tracing is not practicable, or if there is concern for widespread transmission following identification of new-onset SARS-CoV-2 infection among IDP or staff, facility management should consider a broader testing strategy, beyond testing only close contacts within the facility, to reduce the chances of a large outbreak.

Practical considerations for implementing a broader testing strategy should include the availability of resources and the ability to act on results of testing. Decisions about testing strategies in correctional and detention facilities should be made in collaboration with state/local health departments.

  • Depending on fac­ility characteristics and available resources, targeted (e.g., a specific housing unit) or facility-wide testing should be considered if a single IDP or staff member in the facility tests positive for SARS-CoV-2.
  • Incoming IDPs testing positive at intake should be placed immediately into medical isolation and provided medical care. As long as these individuals have not yet been in contact with the rest of the facility’s population, this circumstance would not trigger broader testing,

对密切接触者进行检疫隔离和其他检测

All persons who are close contacts of someone with COVID-19 (e.g., IDP and staff assigned to the housing unit where someone tested positive for SARS-CoV-2) should be provided with cloth face coverings (if not already wearing them, and unless contraindicated), and the IDP should be placed under quarantine restrictions for 14 days after their last exposure.

工作人员

  • Management should consider requiring asymptomatic staff who have been identified as close contacts of a confirmed COVID-19 case to home quarantine to the maximum extent possible, while understanding the need to maintain adequate staffing levels of critical workers. Workers in critical infrastructure sectors (including correctional and detention facilities) may be permitted to work if they remain asymptomatic after a potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2, provided that worker infection prevention recommendations and controls are implemented, including requiring the staff member to wear a cloth face covering (unless contraindicated) at all times while in the workplace for 14 days after the last exposure (if not already wearing one due to universal use of cloth face coverings).
  • If the exposed staff members test positive, they should follow local health department and health care provider instructions regarding home isolation.

被拘禁人员 (IDP)

  • Because correctional and detention facilities may not have enough space to provide an individual cell for each quarantined IDP, they may need to form cohorts of quarantined IDP who were exposed to SARS-CoV-2 at the same time.
  • Some IDP in a quarantined cohort may be infected without showing symptoms or may not test positive due to early stage infection. Infected persons may transmit SARS-CoV-2 to others several days before the onset of symptoms, or even if they never develop symptoms. To prevent continued transmission of the virus within a quarantined cohort, re-testing those who originally tested negative every 3 to 7 days could be considered, until no new cases are identified for 14 days after the most recent positive result. The specific re-testing interval that a facility chooses could be based on:
    • 疫情持续的阶段(例如,在疫情不断升级的情况下更频繁地进行检测,在传播放缓时减少检测的频率)
    • 检测用品的供应情况和工作人员执行重复检测而不对其他基本保健服务产生负面影响的能力
    • 资助重复检测的财政资源,包括采购检测用品、实验室检测服务和个人防护设备 (PPE)
    • The capacity of on-site, contract laboratories, or public health laboratories that will be performing the tests
    • 检测结果的预期等待时间(以及根据结果采取及时行动的能力)
  • If IDP who are close contacts of a confirmed COVID-19 case test positive for SARS-CoV-2, they should be placed under medical isolation. If an IDP who tested positive was part of a quarantine cohort, restart the 14-day quarantine clock for the remainder of the cohort.
  • See detailed guidance on recommendations for how to organize quarantine and medical isolation in correctional and detention settings in Interim Guidance on Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Correctional and Detention Facilities.

Limitations of a re-testing strategy include:

  • Facilities may not have staff and testing capacity to organize testing of large numbers of IDP on a serial basis.
  • Long wait times for receiving large numbers of test results may make frequent re-testing impractical to implement.
  • Frequent re-testing within a quarantine cohort may result in a prolonged quarantine period for the entire cohort if one individual tests positive part-way through quarantine and the 14-day clock must be restarted. It may become challenging to find space to quarantine individuals in correctional or detention facilities for extended periods of time.
  • Frequent re-testing may become burdensome for IDP and increase the proportion of individuals who decline testing.

对被隔离的个人进行重新检测的实际考量应包括空间、资源的可用性,该策略的潜在局限性以及根据结果采取行动的能力。应与州/地方卫生部门合作,决定在惩教和拘留设施进行重新检测的频率。

检测未知或可能接触过SARS-CoV-2的无症状个人,以便进行早期识别

Correctional and detention facilities may consider testing asymptomatic individuals without known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 exposure in communities with moderate to substantial levels of community transmission. Practical considerations for implementing this strategy include the availability of resources, timeliness of results, and the ability for a coordinated response between the health department or other testing agency/provider and the correctional or detention facility. Decisions about testing strategies in correctional and detention facilities should be made in collaboration with state/local health departments. The testing strategies below aim to reduce the risk of introducing SARS-CoV-2 into the correctional or detention facility (i.e., testing newly incarcerated or detained persons) and to reduce the risk of widespread transmission through early identification of infection among existing IDP and staff. Facilities in communities with moderate to substantial levels of community transmission can consider the following:

  • Baseline testing for all current IDP.
  • Testing all new IDP at intake before they join the rest of the population in the facility, and housing them individually while test results are pending to prevent potential transmission. Some facilities may choose to implement a “routine intake quarantine” in which new IDP are housed individually for 14 days before being integrated into general housing.
  • Testing for SARS-CoV-2 and reviewing results before transferring IDP to another facility or releasing them to the community, particularly if an IDP will transition to a congregate setting with persons at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Refer to Interim Guidance on Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Correctional and Detention Facilities for more information about transfer and release recommendations. Consider combining pre-transfer/release testing with a 14-day quarantine (ideally in single cells) before an individual’s projected transfer or release date to further reduce risk of transmission to other facilities or the community.

Transmission-based precautions for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases

工作人员

  • All staff with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should wear cloth face coverings (if not already wearing one, and unless contraindicated), self-isolate at home, connect with appropriate medical care as soon as possible, and follow medical care and instructions.

被拘禁人员 (IDP)

  • All IDP with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be provided with cloth face coverings (if not already wearing one, and unless contraindicated), connected to appropriate medical care as soon as possible, and placed in medical isolation until medical care and instructions can be provided.

Criteria for discontinuing medical isolation of IDP with COVID-19

  • For persons with mild to moderate COVID-19 illness who are not severely immunocompromised, medical isolation can be discontinued when:
    • At least 10 days have passed since symptoms first appeared (or since first positive viral test, if asymptomatic),
    • At least 24 hours have passed since last fever, without the use of fever-reducing medications, and
    • Symptoms have improved.
  • For persons with severe illness or who are severely immunocompromised, medical isolation can be discontinued when:
    • At least 20 days have passed since symptoms first appeared (or since first positive viral test, if asymptomatic),
    • At least 24 hours have passed since last fever, without the use of fever-reducing medications, and
    • Symptoms have improved.
    • Consider consultation with infection control experts.

See Duration of isolation for more information.

在惩教和拘留设施中实施SARS-CoV-2广泛检测的实际考虑

For more information on testing procedures, including choosing a physical location for testing, ensuring adequate ventilation, planning movement through the testing location, and ensuring appropriate PPE, please see Performing Broad-Based Testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Congregate Settings.

协助设施制定如何及何时进行SARS-CoV-2广泛检测相关决策的考虑清单
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Work with state/local health departments to help inform decision-making about broad-based testing in correctional and detention facilities.

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If a facility decides to implement broad-based testing, use viral tests with Emergency Use Authorizationexternal icon from FDA, and ensure that the manufacturers’ instructions regarding sample collection and transport are strictly followed to maximize accuracy of results. Work with state/local health departments and laboratories to choose appropriate tests and necessary supplies.

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如果要进行广泛检测,请认真考虑制定包括被拘禁人员和工作人员在内的检测计划。 

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如果要进行广泛检测,请认真考虑制定包括被拘禁人员和工作人员在内的检测计划。 

  • In some facilities, COVID-19 cases have been initially identified among staff, before any cases have been identified among IDP.
  • 由于工作人员每天在设施和社区之间活动,因此存在将感染从社区带入设施和/或将来自设施的感染带回社区的风险。
  • 如果有运营、合同和/或法律上的理由禁止在设施内使用检测人员,或对使用设施资源/人员对工作人员进行检测感到担忧,应研究与社区伙伴或州/地方卫生部门合作实施人员检测的备选方案。

为设施如何根据检测结果更改运行方式制定计划

  • Identify additional isolation spaces that can be used to house infected individuals identified during broad-based testing and additional quarantine spaces to house their close contacts. Consider what isolation/quarantine spaces are necessary to meet other security or medical needs as well (e.g., Special Housing Unit, medical beds, mental health beds, Protective Custody, etc.)
  • Given the potential for high numbers of asymptomatic infections, ensure that plans include isolation options to house large numbers of infected individuals and quarantine options to house large numbers of close contacts. For example, consider how the facility’s housing operations could be modified for multiple test result scenarios (e.g., if testing reveals that 10%, 30%, 50% or more of incarcerated or detained persons test positive for SARS-CoV-2).
  • 对被拘禁人员进行检测的计划中要考虑和解决的问题包括:
    • 是否会为检测呈阳性的人员指定特定的房间/位置?
    • 设施将如何管理拒绝检测的人员?
    • 广泛检测多久进行一次? 重复检测的阈值/指标是什么?
    • 如果检测显示阳性的被拘禁人员多于阴性的被拘禁人员,是否会将阴性的被拘禁人员重新分配到不同的房间(而不是重新分配检测呈阳性的被拘禁人员)?
    • 如果发现大量呈阳性的人员,并重新安排房间单位,将如何有系统地彻底清洁和消毒房间?
    • How will the facility manage the logistics of moving large numbers of people into different housing arrangements? For example, where will IDP go while the housing units are being cleaned and disinfected, and how will positive and negative individuals be separated during this time?
    • 谁将根据州和地方公共卫生法的要求向当地或州卫生部门报告检测结果?
  •  When testing staff:
    • 雇主可以合法地强制对员工进行检测吗? 如果不能,雇主将如何鼓励检测?雇主将如何管理拒绝检测的员工?
    • What entity will perform the testing, and how will results be reported to the employer and staff member?
    • 谁将根据州和地方公共卫生法的要求将员工的检测结果报告给地方或州卫生部门?
    • 如果大部分员工检测呈阳性,如何维持足够的人员配备水平?(参见关键基础设施员工指导方针。)

注脚

1Based on current knowledge, an individual is considered a close contact of someone with COVID-19 if they

  1. have been within 6 feet of an infected person for at least 15 minutes starting from 48 hours before illness onset (or starting from 48 hours before the first positive test result if asymptomatic) until the time the infected person meets criteria to end medical isolation, or
  2. have had direct contact with infectious secretions from someone with COVID-19 (e.g., have been coughed on) and were not wearing recommended PPE at the time of contact. Close contact can occur while caring for, living with, visiting, or sharing a common space with someone with COVID-19. Determination of close contact does not change if the infected individual is wearing a mask or cloth face covering.
2020年8月10日最后更新